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Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- FDA instance, Samir Amin's study Eurocentrism is concerned to criticize a particular conception of progress.

This conception, which he terms Eurocentrism, characterizes all major Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- FDA innovations as European.

It also views capitalist democracy as the ideal social system and colonialism as instrumental in spreading it throughout the world (Amin 1988, 108). Finally, Eurocentricism holds that current global economic inequality is caused by internal features of individual countries (77) and is in principle eliminable (111). Now, Amin does not reject the project of identifying macro-historical movements. His reasoning is, in fact, influenced by Marxism. He seeks only to replace Eurocentrism with a truer account.

To do so, he first presents an alternate sketch of historical development that shines light on non-European contributions. He ends by stating that some form of socialism is the only stable and humane political system, although it is far from inevitable (152). Postmodern postcolonial theorists offer a more radical critique of European progress narratives than Amin does.

Michel Foucault, the French historian of ideas, is a major influence on the school. Foucault holds that discourses are what constitute and empower the subjects that make history. Thus he takes discourses as the fundamental objects of historical study. Said argues that the discourse of Orientalism laid the foundation for the colonial project and supported it once it was underway (210).

In addition to Said, the historians of the subaltern studies movement Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- FDA adapted a Foucauldian view of history, in their case to analyze Indian colonial history (Prakash 1994, 1480).

Although at odds in many ways, both discourses heavily from progress narratives (1475). In general, postmodern postcolonialists aim to show that the typical universal history is one discourse among many incommensurable discourses, none of which are without inconsistencies.

So far, we have seen how the events of the 20th century provoked criticisms of the Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- FDA European progress narrative. In contrast, the collapse of communism inspired a minor revival of the traditional progress narrative. This article and its companion book, The End of History and the Last Man, endorse Hegelian social theory as Fukuyama interprets it.

For Fukuyama, Hegel at once offers an idealist theory of social change and champions liberal democracy. Нажмите чтобы перейти that crucial point, no more major developments were in store, but instead the gradual spread and realization of the liberal democratic ideal. Of course, this argument was seriously challenged by the rise fascism and communism in the 20th century and the conflicts that ensued.

But Fukuyama in 1989 читать больше maximally situated to defend Hegel and to argue that жмите сюда ideological alternatives to liberal democracy were essentially deviations from deeper trends.

According to Fukuyama, fascism clearly failed by the mid-century (16-17) and now, with the fall of the Soviet Union, it was evident that communism was also a dead end.

The elite lost faith in the regime because they saw that it was ideologically bankrupt (31). According to Fukuyama, liberalism's great ideological rivals Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- FDA in the long term for two адрес страницы. Thus Marx's claim that capitalism was materially unstable proved true of communism instead. Second, following Hegel, Fukuyama asserts that only liberalism can satisfy the human desire for recognition in a stable fashion.

Fukuyama ends his book with an intriguing consideration of Hegel's view of war. Fukuyama agrees with Hegel that liberal democracy's greatest weakness is its tendency to produce selfish and effete bourgeois types. But he points out that war-at least modern war-is destructive rather than invigorating (1992, 335). It may be that those who wish to abolish war are naive, but Fukuyama argues persuasively that Hegel's view of war is equally naive.

Instead, Rawls's first priority is the justification of a particular conception of liberal justice, one that supports basic источник and civil freedoms, and also dictates significant economic redistribution. At the same time, influenced by Kant and Hegel (2000, 330), Rawls is concerned to show that the ideal he describes is possible (1996, xx).

Thus a stable well-ordered society is one whose institutions are reproduced over time by informed, morally motivated citizens. Part III of A Theory of Justice argues that a society satisfying Rawlsian liberal principles of justice will be stable.

In Political Liberalism, Rawls yokes the question of the persistence of a liberal society to the question of its emergence.

Rawls draws on familiar historical events to illustrate how his ideal society could Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- FDA. Both groups agreed to the solution because they were exhausted by the fighting, not because they endorsed freedom of religion for its жмите sake.

Yet over time Europeans came to endorse freedom of religion on deeper grounds than their immediate self-interest (xxv-xxvii). Rawls thinks that political liberalism extends freedom of religion to moral worldviews in general.

Thus he hopes that an analogous path could lead to the emergence of a well-ordered society. Individuals could first choose principles of justice as compromises to persistent moral disagreements, and over time come to endorse Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- FDA principles for their own sake.



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