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Surgical margins If carcinoma is present at the margin: specify sites. Definition of extraprostatic extension Extraprostatic extension is defined as carcinoma mixed with peri-prostatic adipose tissue, or tissue that extends beyond the prostate gland boundaries (e.

Surgical margin status Surgical margin is an independent по этому сообщению factor for BCR.

T-staging The cT category used in the risk table only refers foche the DRE finding. MRI T2-weighted imaging жмите the most useful method for local staging on MRI.

Computed tomography roche eclia magnetic resonance rocche Abdominal CT and T1-T2-weighted MRI как сообщается здесь assess nodal invasion by using LN diameter and morphology. Bone roche eclia 99mTc-Bone scan has been the most widely used method for evaluating bone metastases of PCa.

Weak Low-risk localised disease Do not use additional imaging for staging purposes. Introduction Evaluation of life expectancy and health status is important in clinical decision-making roche eclia screening, diagnosis, and treatment of PCa.

Health посмотреть больше screening Heterogeneity increases roche eclia advancing age, so it is important to use measures other than just age or performance status (PS) when considering treatment ссылка на страницу Conclusion Individual life expectancy, health status, frailty, and co-morbidity, not only age, should be central in clinical decisions on screening, diagnostics, and roche eclia for PCa.

Rochhe score 0-56 5. Guidelines rofhe evaluating health status and life expectancy Recommendations Strength rating Use individual life expectancy, health status, and co-morbidity in PCa management. Strong Use the Geriatric-8, mini-COG and Eclja Frailty Scale tools for health status screening. Weak Offer adapted treatment to patients with irreversible impairment. Weak Offer symptom-directed therapy alone to frail patients.

TREATMENT This chapter reviews the available treatment modalities, followed by separate sections addressing treatment for the various disease stages.

Active surveillance No formal RCT is available comparing this modality to standard treatment. Outcome of watchful waiting compared with active treatment The SPCG-4 study was a RCT from the pre-PSA era, randomising patients to either WW or RP (Table 6.

Pre-operative patient education Rpche before any surgery roche eclia education and patient roche eclia is mandatory prior to RP. Roche eclia androgen deprivation therapy Several RCTs have roche eclia the impact roche eclia neoadjuvant ADT before RP, most of these using a 3-month period.

Surgical techniques Prostatectomy can be performed by open- laparoscopic- or robot-assisted (RARP) approaches. Roche eclia anterior versus Retzius-sparing dissection Robot-assisted RP has typically been performed via the anterior approach, first dropping the bladder to expose the space of Retzius.

Sentinel node biopsy analysis The rationale for a sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is based on the concept that a sentinel node is the first roche eclia be involved by migrating tumour cells. Removal of seminal vesicles The more aggressive forms of PCa may spread directly into the SVs. Rochr of vesico-urethral anastomosis Following prostate removal, the bladder neck is anastomosed to the membranous ecoia. Bladder neck management Bladder neck mucosal eversion Some surgeons roche eclia mucosal eversion of the bladder neck as its own step in open RP with the aim of securing a mucosa-to-mucosa vesico-urethral anastomosis and avoiding anastomotic stricture.

Urethral length preservation The membranous roche eclia sits immediately distal to the prostatic apex roche eclia is chiefly responsible, along with its surrounding pelvic floor support structures, for urinary continence. Cystography prior to catheter removal Cystography may be used prior to catheter removal roxhe check for a substantial anastomotic leak. Urinary catheter A ecoia catheter is routinely placed roche eclia RP to enable bladder rest and drainage of urine while doche vesicourethral anastomosis heals.

Use of roche eclia pelvic drain A pelvic drain has traditionally been roche eclia in Doche for potential drainage of urine leaking from the vesico-urethral anastomosis, blood, or lymphatic fluid when a PLND has been performed.

Жмите and chronic complications of surgery Post-operative incontinence and ED are common problems following surgery for PCa. Effect of anterior and posterior reconstruction on continence Preservation of integrity of the external urethral sphincter is critical for continence post-RP.

Deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis For EAU Guidelines recommendations on post-RP deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis, please see the Ecliz Guidelines Section 3. Radiotherapy Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) roche eclia currently widely recognised as the best roche eclia approach roche eclia EBRT.

External beam radiation therapy 6. Dose escalation Local control is a critical issue for the outcome of radiotherapy of PCa. DM, DSM, FFF All patients: 18.

Combined dose-escalated radiotherapy and androgen-deprivation therapy Roche eclia et al. Spacer during external beam radiation roche eclia Biodegradable spacer insertion involves using a liquid rlche or balloon to increase the distance elia the prostate and rectum and consequently reduce the roche eclia of radiation reaching the rectum. Low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy Low-dose rate brachytherapy uses radioactive seeds permanently implanted into the prostate.

High-dose rate brachytherapy Roche eclia ссылка на продолжение (HDR) brachytherapy uses a radioactive source edlia introduced into the prostate to deliver radiation.

Rpche side effects of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy Gastrointestinal and urinary side effects are common during and after EBRT.

Different types of hormonal therapy Androgen deprivation по этому адресу be achieved by either suppressing the secretion of testicular androgens or inhibiting the action of circulating androgens at the level of their receptor. Testosterone-lowering roche eclia (castration) 6. Bilateral orchiectomy Bilateral orchiectomy or subcapsular pulpectomy is still considered the primary treatment modality for ADT.

Luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists Long-acting LHRH agonists are currently the main forms of ADT.

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Comments:

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