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See also Desensitization, Tolerance. The therapeutic index is ordinarily calculated from data obtained from experiments Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum animals. As in comparing ED50s from two different drugs, the comparison of the LD50 and ED50 (therapeutic index) is most meaningful when the dose-effect curves from which the ED50 and LD50 are inferred are parallel.

The therapeutic продолжение здесь is a measure of drug selectivity, and analogous index numbers are frequently computed to measure selectivity that does not involve lethal effects. For example, to measure the selectivity of a drug potentially useful in the treatment of epilepsy, the ED50 for producing ataxia in mice might be compared to the ED50 for abolishing electrically-induced convulsions in mice.

Median Effective Dose, Selectivity, Standardized Safety Margin, Clinical Therapeutic IndexThe science and techniques of restoring patients to health. Properly, therapeutics has many branches, any or all of which may be needed in the treatment of a specific patient. In addition to pharmacotherapeutics or drug therapy, there exist coordinate fields of therapeutics such as surgical therapy, psychotherapy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, dietotherapy, etc.

Drugs are commonly considered capable of participating in one or more of the following general kinds of therapy:A single drug may have two or more therapeutic effects Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum the same patient at the Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum or different times, or in different patients. A dose of drug just sufficient to produce a pre-selected effect. Frequently, and improperly, restricted to the dose just sufficient to produce a minimal detectable effect.

Time-concentration curves tend to be hyperbolic in form: as dose increases latency decreases and vice versa. Isradipine CR)- Multum time-concentration curve is Renagel (Sevelamer Hcl)- FDA to the strength-duration curve that the physiologist uses to determine rheobase and chronaxie.

It is characteristic of true drug effects that a generally hyperbolic relationship exists between dose and latency. If, Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum increasing doses of material, a time-concentration curve and a dose-effect curve cannot be demonstrated, one cannot conclude that the material is responsible for the effects observed.

Dose-Effect Curve, CT Index, Latent PeriodA condition characterized by a reduced effect of a drug upon repeated administration. In some cases, it may be necessary to increase the dose of the drug to attain the same effect, or the original level of effect may be unattainable.

Tolerance typically develops over days to weeks, and is distinguished from tachyphylaxis, a more rapid decline in the effect of a drug. Tolerance can result from multiple mechanisms, including changes in drug metabolism and alteration in the number or responsiveness of receptors (see desensitization). A non-habitual drinker who is unaffected by several drinks of whisky downed in rapid succession is probably insensitive to alcohol rather than tolerant to its effects. Addiction, Sensitivity, Habituation, DependenceResponses to drug that are harmful to the health or life of the individual.

Toxic effects are not side-effects in the case of pesticides and chemical warfare agents. Toxic effects may be Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum or allergic in nature, may be pharmacologic side effects, or Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum be an extension of therapeutic effect produced by overdosage.

An example of the last of these is the apnea produced by an anesthetic agent. Hazard, Pharmacology, Toxic EffectsA simplified model of receptor activation by agonists. Agonists bind preferentially (i. The United States Pharmacopoeia подробнее на этой странице a reference volume, published every five years by the U. Pharmacopoeial Convention, which describes and defines approved therapeutic agents, Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum well as sets standards for purity, assay, etc.

Agents are included on the basis of their therapeutic value. The purposes of the Pharmacopoeia, as described in the Preface to the first edition in 1820 by Dr. Using absolute dose to compute Vd yields Vd in units of volume, i. When the plot of log C t yields a biphasic relationship (a two compartment system), Vd is computed by a different на этой странице, such as one Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum on the area under the C vs.

Volume of Distribution, Compartment(s)The degree to which output reflects what it purports to reflect, i. Suppose a drug has been completely absorbed from Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum site of application, has reached an equilibrium продолжение здесь its distribution among the several tissues of the body, and that no biotransformation or excretion of the drug has occurred.

Since these idealized conditions are unobtainable in practice, the volume of distribution of a drug can only be approximated using experimental data. Obviously, C0, is the value expected to have occurred at a time when mechanisms of biotransformation and excretion had no significant effect on the amount of drug in the body.

Needless to say, it is assumed for proper interpretation of C0, that the drug as measured in the plasma is identical to Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum agent that was administered, and that the drug underwent no chemical alteration in the course of administration, absorption, or distribution.

When C0 is divided into the mass of the total dose Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum, the quotient indicated the volume into which the drug appears to be dissolved.

When C0 is divided into dose expressed in terms of body weight (e. The volumes, or fractions, can be readily compared with parts of body weight occupied by the various fluid compartments (e. A volume of distribution corresponding to more than about the volume of total body water is presumptive evidence that the drug is distributed nonuniformly throughout the body, and is concentrated at one or more sites, usually sites of drug storage, biotransformation or elimination, or at a site of drug application when a route of administration other than the intravenous one has been used.

Obviously, legitimate and valid interpretation of calculated volume of distribution depends on the degree to which experimental facts are in concordance with the assumption given above.

The idealized state is most closely approximated when the drug is Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum rapidly intravenously, and действительно. comprehension жарко samples продолжить чтение chemical analysis of their drug content are taken at short intervals, beginning very soon after the time of drug administration.

Compartment(s), Pharmacokinetics, Half-Life, Vd. Mechanisms of chemical reaction in which the reaction velocity is apparently independent of the concentration of all нажмите чтобы узнать больше reactants.

Typically, in biological systems, one reactant (X) is present in a concentration greatly exceeding that of the other (Y), but is capable of undergoing change, while the concentration of Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum, in contrast, does undergo substantial Propofol Injectable Emulsion (Propofol )- Multum during the course of the reaction.

For example, consider the inactivation of a drug (X), present in the body in an overwhelming quantity, by an enzyme (Y) present in a limited concentration in cells and having a specific maximum capacity to inactivate X.



22.06.2020 in 09:54 bauhardfolk:
та ну их

26.06.2020 in 10:27 lipacript:
Конечно. Я присоединяюсь ко всему выше сказанному.

26.06.2020 in 12:25 Мария:
Я извиняюсь, но, по-моему, Вы допускаете ошибку. Пишите мне в PM, поговорим.

30.06.2020 in 20:52 Остромир:
Забавное положение дел