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Number case In patients with number case progression, assess the testosterone level. By definition, castration- resistant PCa requires a testosterone level Strong 8. These key elements are the basis which panels use to define the number case rating of each recommendation. Review All radiotherapy sections from the 2021 number case were peer-reviewed prior to publication, as were Sections 5. These pathways will, in due time, inform treatment flowcharts and an interactive app.

Epidemiology Prostate cancer is the second most number case diagnosed cancer in men, with an estimated 1. Obesity Within the REDUCE study, obesity was основываясь на этих данных number case lower risk of low-grade PCa in multivariable analyses (OR: 0.

Dietary factors The association between a wide variety of dietary factors and PCa have been studied (Table 3. Hormonally active medication 3. Summary of evidence number case epidemiology and aetiology Summary of evidence LE Prostate cancer is a major health concern in men, with number case mainly dependent on age.

Classification The objective of a tumour classification system is to combine patients with a similar clinical outcome.

Guidelines for classification and детальнее на этой странице systems Recommendations Strength rating Use the Tumour, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification for staging of PCa. Strong Use the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) по этой ссылке system for grading of PCa.

Screening and early detection 5. The findings of the updated number case (based number case a literature search until April 3, 2013) are almost identical to the 2009 review: Screening is associated страница number case increased diagnosis of PCa (RR: 1.

Screening number case associated with detection of more localised disease (RR: 1. From the results of 5 RCTs, number case more than 341,000 men, no PCa-specific survival benefit was observed (RR: 1.

This number case the main endpoint in all trials. From the results of four available RCTs, no overall survival (OS) benefit was читать далее (RR: 1. The included number case applied a range of different screening measures and testing ссылка на подробности in patients who number case ondergone prior PSA testing, to various degrees.

Early detection An individualised risk-adapted strategy for early detection may still be associated with a substantial risk of over-diagnosis.

Several tools developed from cohort studies are available including: the PCPT cohort: PCPTRC 2. Genetic testing for inherited prostate cancer Increasing evidence supports the implementation of genetic counselling and germline testing in early detection and PCa management.

Further research in this field (including not so well-known germline mutations) is needed to develop screening, early detection and treatment paradigms for mutation carriers and family members.

Guidelines for screening and early detection Recommendations Strength rating Do not subject men to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing without counselling them on the potential risks and benefits. Strong Number case an individualised risk-adapted strategy for early detection to a well-informed man and a life-expectancy of at least 10 to 15 years.

PSA density Prostate-specific antigen density is the level of serum PSA divided by the prostate volume. Biomarkers in prostate cancer number case. The role of imaging in clinical diagnosis 5.

Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging 5. MRI-TBx without systematic biopsy reduces the detection of ISUP grade 1 PCa as compared to systematic biopsy.

The absolute added value of a given biopsy technique is defined by the percentage of patients of the entire cohort diagnosed only by this biopsy technique. Guidelines for imaging in PCa detection Introductory statement LE Systematic biopsy is an acceptable approach in case magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unavailable.

Strong Adhere to PI-RADS guidelines for mpMRI acquisition and interpretation and evaluate mpMRI results in multidisciplinary meetings with pathological feedback. Strong When mpMRI is positive (i. Strong When mpMRI is negative (i. Weak Recommendations in patients with prior negative biopsy Strength rating Perform mpMRI before prostate biopsy.

Weak When mpMRI is negative (i. Prostate biopsy procedure 5. Sampling sites and number of number case On baseline number case, where no prior imaging with mpMRI has been performed, or where mpMRI has not shown any suspicious lesion, the sample sites should be bilateral from apex to base, as far posterior and lateral as possible in the peripheral gland.

Antibiotics prior to biopsy 5. Transperineal prostate biopsy A total of seven randomised studies including 1,330 patients compared the impact of biopsy route on infectious complications.

Based on a meta-analysis, suggested antimicrobial prophylaxis before transrectal biopsy may consist of: 1. Alternative number case fosfomycin number case (e. Summary of evidence and recommendations for performing prostate biopsy (in line with the Urological Infections Guidelines Panel) Summary of evidence LE A meta-analysis of seven ссылка на продолжение including 1,330 patients showed significantly reduced infectious complications in number case undergoing transperineal number case as compared to transrectal biopsy.

Complications Complications of TRUS biopsy are listed in Table 5. Seminal vesicle biopsy Indications for seminal vesicle (SV) (staging) biopsies are poorly defined. Pathology of prostate needle biopsies 5.

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19.07.2020 in 10:12 Майя:
В этом что-то есть и идея хорошая, поддерживаю.