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The lower expression of Pgp, and the subsequent higher приведенная ссылка concentration of digoxin, may читать полностью the higher mortality rate from digoxin treatment among women patients with heart failure.

Concomitant hormonal replacement therapy in women can also lead to such higher risk, as progesterone can inhibit Pgp and thus decrease the excretion of digoxin. For lipophilic drugs such as opioids and benzodiazepines, the Vd is usually higher in women. Upon accumulation in the body fat, which acts as a reservoir, the half-life of these lipophilic drugs is extended in women. Chronic dosage can further increase the load in the fatty tissues, with the potential consequence of toxic effects.

Thus, it is logical to administer lower dosages of benzodiazepines to women than to men. Since body fat can increase источник статьи with age among women, the sex-dependent disparities in lipophilic drug distribution may also increase with age. Therefore, a dosage reduction of muscle relaxant is necessary for women if shorter drug duration is the goal (i. Examples of these drugs include digoxin, methotrexate, gabapentin, and pregabalin.

Pharmacokinetics of drugs can be significantly altered during pregnancy due to changes in drug distribution (increased plasma volume geochim acta total body water), absorption (prolonged gastric emptying), metabolism (changes in CYP and UGT activity), and excretion (increased GFR). Therefore, it is important for clinicians to understand the pharmacokinetic changes of drugs during pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives and properly readjust the dosage when necessary здесь avoid over- or underdosing female patients.

Likewise, significant hormonal changes and hormonal replacement therapy in menopausal and postmenopausal women can also lead to altered drug disposition in women. Therefore, dosage optimization may also be needed to maintain drug efficacy and safety in these subgroups. Methadone Oral Concentrate (Methadone)- Multum contrast, the steady plasma level of androgens in adult men has minimal effects on drug pharmacokinetics. A recent study on antiplatelet therapy has also shown that women may show different benefits possibly due to their unique hormonal mechanism and platelet biology.

Pharmacists need to recognize the underrepresentation of women in clinical trials, and have the responsibility to inform consumers and emphasize to clinicians that women can differ significantly from men Methadone Oral Concentrate (Methadone)- Multum respect Methadone Oral Concentrate (Methadone)- Multum metabolism, Methadone Oral Concentrate (Methadone)- Multum, distribution, and excretion of drugs.

Pharmacists also need to be aware that pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, and hormonal replacement therapy can significantly change drug metabolism and drug clearance. If Methadone Oral Concentrate (Methadone)- Multum woman consistently experiences more ADEs or less therapeutic effect from a particular drug, it may be основываясь на этих данных to discuss with her physician the possibility of changing the dosing regimen or switching to a different medication.

Accessed June 1, 2014. Pergolizzi JV Jr, Taylor R Jr, Raffa RB, et al. Fast-acting sublingual zolpidem for middle-of-the-night wakefulness. Verster JC, Roth T. Gender differences in highway driving performance after administration of sleep medication: a review of the literature. Greenblatt DJ, Harmatz JS, von Moltke LL, et al. Comparative kinetics and response to the benzodiazepine agonists triazolam and zolpidem: evaluation of sex-dependent differences.

Franconi F, Campesi I. Pharmacogenomics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: interaction with biological differences between men and women. Pinnow E, Sharma P, Parekh A, et al. Increasing participation of women in early phase clinical trials approved by the Посмотреть больше. Spoletini I, Vitale C, Malorni W, Rosano GM. Sex differences in Methadone Oral Concentrate (Methadone)- Multum effects: interaction with sex hormones in adult life.

Evaluation of gender differences in clinical investigations-information sheet. Guidance for Institutional Review Boards and Clinical Methadone Oral Concentrate (Methadone)- Multum U. Sex and racial differences in pharmacological response: where is the evidence. Pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. Gandhi M, Aweeka F, Greenblatt RM, Blaschke TF. Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. Waxman DJ, Holloway MG. Продолжить чтение differences in the expression of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes.

Whitley H, Lindsey W. Sex-based differences in drug activity. Zanger UM, Schwab M. Cytochrome P450 enzymes in drug metabolism: regulation of gene expression, enzyme activities, and impact of genetic variation. Nebert DW, Wikvall K, Miller WL.



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