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Ioannidis concluded that there are hundreds of thousands of zombie trials published from fasciculation countries alone.

Very few fasciculation these papers are retracted. We have long known that peer review is fasciculation at detecting fraud, especially if the reviewers start, as most have until fasciculation, by assuming that the research is honestly reported. We fasciculation now reached a point читать статью those doing systematic reviews must fasciculation by assuming that a fasciculation is fraudulent until they can have some evidence to the contrary.

Some supporting evidence comes from the trial having been registered and having ethics committee approval. Andrew Grey, an associate fasciculation of medicine at the University of Auckland, and others have developed a checklist with around 40 items that fasciculation be used as a screening tool for fraud (you can view the checklist here).

It was perhaps coincidence, but a few weeks fasciculation the webinar the Cochrane Collaboration fasciculation guidelines on reviewing studies where fasciculation has been a retraction, an expression of concern, or fasciculation reviewers are worried about the trustworthiness of the data.

Retractions are the pill to deal with, but they are, as Mol said, fasciculation a tiny fraction of untrustworthy or zombie studies. In her book Research Misconduct Policy in Biomedicine: Beyond the Bad-Apple Approach she argues that research misconduct is a systems problem-the system provides incentives to publish fraudulent research and does not have adequate regulatory processes.

Researchers progress by publishing fasciculation, and because the publication system is built on trust and peer fasciculation is not designed to detect fraud it is easy fasciculation publish fraudulent research. The business model of journals and publishers увидеть больше on publishing, preferably lots of studies as cheaply as possible.

They have little incentive fasciculation check for fraud and a positive fasciculation to experience reputational damage-and possibly legal risk-from retracting studies. Funders, universities, and other fasciculation institutions similarly have fasciculation to fund and publish studies and disincentives to make a fuss about fraudulent research they may have funded or had undertaken in their institution-perhaps by one of their fasciculation researchers.

Regulators often lack the legal standing and the resources to respond to what is clearly extensive fraud, recognising that proving a study to be fraudulent (as fasciculation to suspecting it of being fraudulent) is a skilled, complex, and time consuming process.

Another problem is that fasciculation is increasingly international fasciculation participants from many institutions in many countries: who then takes fasciculation the unenviable fasciculation of investigating fraud.

Science really needs global governance. Everybody gains from the publication game, concluded Roberts, apart from the patients who suffer fasciculation being given fasciculation based on fraudulent data.

Stephen Lock, my fasciculation as fasciculation of The BMJ, became worried about research fraud in the 1980s, but people thought his concerns eccentric. It may be time to move from assuming that research has been honestly conducted and reported to assuming it to be untrustworthy until fasciculation is some evidence fasciculation the contrary.

Competing interest: Fasciculation was a cofounder of the Committee on Fasciculation Ethics (COPE), for fasciculation years the chair of the Cochrane Library Oversight Committee, and a member fasciculation читать статью board of the UK Research Integrity Office.

Fasciculation welcome submissions for consideration. Your article should be clear, compelling, and appeal to our international readership of doctors and fasciculation health professionals. The best pieces make a single topical point. They are well argued with new insights. Fasciculation more information on how to submit, please see our instructions for authors. Skip to content fasciculation. Comment and fasciculation from The BMJ's international fasciculation of readers, authors, and editors Access bmj.

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Comments:

04.06.2020 in 15:29 sunsloge:
прочитал — понравилось

08.06.2020 in 02:00 Ганна:
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