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When using these http://tonlanh.top/succinate-doxylamine/allergic.php, people search to confirm their confidence in existing beliefs or themselves. Within this Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA three different strategies can be distinguished. The first two, attitude bolstering and social validation, aim to reinforce a particular existing attitude. This strategy strengthens self-confidence, and not one particular attitude.

Attitude bolstering is a process by which people generate thoughts that are supportive of their existing attitudes (e. Upon exposure to messages, recipients reconsider the reasons for their current attitudes and Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA. They do not refute адрес challenge the arguments that are presented in the message For jeep, a person in favor of the right to abortion can resist a pro-life message by actively thinking about arguments that support the right to abortion rather than countering the arguments in the pro-life message.

To strengthen their current attitude, people can also seek validation from significant others. Zuwerink Jacks and Cameron (2003) found that people who are presented with a persuasive message that is incongruent with their Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA attitude think of others who share their existing beliefs. This confirms their current attitude or behavior and makes them less susceptible to persuasion.

In their study, Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA were presented with manipulated positive or negative audience feedback to a message. The results indicated that enthusiastic (positive) feedback enhanced the impact of the message.

In their research on resistance strategies, Zuwerink Jacks and Cameron (2003) observed that people may resist persuasion by asserting the self. People who apply this strategy remind themselves that nothing can change their attitudes нажмите для деталей behavior because they are confident about them. This phenomenon occurs for two reasons.

First, people with high self-esteem are particularly confident about their own opinions and thus less likely to change their attitudes and behavior upon exposure to a persuasive message. Second, sociometer theory (Leary and Baumeister, 2000) argues that persuasion typically occurs because people desire to behave appropriately and therefore avoid продолжить by conforming to the message.

People with high self-esteem feel less social pressure to conform because they feel valued and accepted, which reduces their motivation to behave in a socially Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA manner (Moreland and Levine, 1989). The previous section reviewed strategies that people use to resist a persuasive message. In this section, we discuss three motives for resistance: threats to freedom, reluctance to change, and concern about deception.

These motives derive from various research domains and will be applied to the field of persuasive communication to elucidate ссылка на подробности people are motivated to resist a persuasive attempt. In addition, we discuss больше на странице related to the activation of each resistance motive.

The theory of psychological reactance is one of the best-known frameworks for understanding why people resist persuasion (for reviews, see Burgoon et al. Reactance theory assumes that human beings have Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA innate desire for autonomy and independence and experience psychological reactance when they sense that their freedom is threatened or eliminated. When people feel that their freedom is threatened, they are motivated to maintain and restore the threatened opinion or behavior (Brehm and Brehm, Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA. Hence, reactance is regarded as the motivational state of a person whose freedom is threatened.

Dillard and Shen (2005) proposed defining reactance at the level of observable affective and cognitive responses. Their research Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA that reactance is best described by Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA intertwined model in which an affective anger response and a cognitive response of counter arguing are intertwined.

This view was confirmed in subsequent experimental studies, as revealed by a recent правы. Anzemet Tablets (Dolasetron)- Multum считаю of 20 different reactance studies (Rains, 2013). Although psychological reactance was initially perceived as situation specific, Подробнее на этой странице and Brehm (1981) recognized that people vary in the extent to which they experience reactance.

Several studies revealed that younger people exhibit more reactance than older people (Hong Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA al. Older people regard fewer situations as threatening their freedom because they have learned how to cope with the related emotions.

In addition, Brehm and Brehm (1981) argued that older people are better at valuing the importance of freedom and are more motivated to exert a freedom than younger people.

In addition to trait reactance and age, several message factors have been found to affect the experience of threat to freedom. In general, threats to freedom are likely to be triggered by any or all message factors that seem to impose a certain behavior or opinion upon the audience.

In their study of messages about environmental issues, these authors found that such language may reduce compliance Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA individuals who attach little importance to the topic (see also Baek et al. Moreover, guilt appeals have also been found to induce feelings of anger, which is Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA essential element of reactance.

For example, Englis (1990) found that продолжить чтение who were exposed to a guilt commercial reported lower levels of happiness and Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA levels of anger, scorn, and disgust.

Threats to freedom may be prevented by elements of communication that emphasize freedom of choice. In terms of language use, this effect may Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA achieved by using politeness strategies, such as indirect requests, or by providing suggestions, examples, or hints rather than direct requests (Brown, 1987). Beyond language factors, Shen (2010) has demonstrated that empathy-inducing messages (i. A reluctance to change may be caused by an unwillingness to change, but also by a desire to stay the same.

We will elaborate upon this distinction in our discussion of the factors that drive reluctance to change. A persuasive attempt may also induce consistency concerns (Petty et al.

People are unwilling toward the possibility that persuasive information may challenge an important belief. This may go beyond the general notion of avoiding cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957). Dogmatism has been related to resistance to change in several studies (e. Dogmatic people are characterized by closed-mindedness and cognitive rigidity.

They are often averse Diltiazem Hcl (Tiazac)- FDA change because they find it difficult to adjust to a new situation. Similarly, research on cultural values (cf. Constructs related to cognitive flexibility and openness are the opposite of closed-mindedness and uncertainty avoidance.

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Comments:

01.06.2020 in 12:02 Марк:
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05.06.2020 in 15:39 Эрнст:
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06.06.2020 in 20:37 Регина:
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