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The writings on progress of the 18th century drew inspiration from the intellectual achievements of the 16th and 17th centuries. During this time, Europe witnessed an explosion of scientific and mathematical activity. In the natural sciences, the main fields of investigation were physics and astronomy.

Newton synthesized the work of the previous thinkers to bring the behavior of bodies on earth and bodies in space under a single scientific law, the law of universal gravitation. The discoveries of these scientists had broad implications.

First of all, the success of the new physics in unifying distinct phenomena and predicting behavior vindicated an underlying paradigm of scientific investigation and explanation.

Second, the rapid gains encouraged an optimistic view of humans' capability to understand and shape their world. Here was Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA clear example of a communal activity in which one human built on and improved the work of his predecessor. Two thinkers of the French Enlightenment, Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA Turgot, Baron de Больше информации (1727-81), and Marie Jean Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794), integrated reflection on scientific discoveries into their writings on progress.

Turgot, a minister to Louis XVI, produced two influential works, A Philosophical Review of the Successive Advances of the Human Mind and On Universal History. Condorcet was inspired by Продолжить to write Outlines of an historical view of the Progress of the human mind, a piece that echoes many of Turgot's ссылка на продолжение. Although Condorcet больше на странице his essay in prison during the Terror, he, like Turgot, evinces optimism about the future of France and of humanity as a whole.

Both authors suggest that philosophical progress is the deepest condition of scientific progress. Influenced by British empiricism, Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA and Condorcet assert that all human knowledge is grounded in experience. Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA to Turgot, the renaissance of science first required an empiricist Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA, the abandoning of Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA appealing Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA faculties and essences.

Although neither author rigorously defines human well-being, both believe that, over the long term, scientific discoveries and political freedom reinforce each other and together further it. Turgot considers the role that political institutions play in advancing science. He thinks that individual genius moves science forward.

Political institutions are important to scientific progress insofar as they allow geniuses to flourish. Variation in scientific achievement is to be explained not by the concentration of genius but by the Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA that either suppress or encourage it (1751, 88).

Despotic government is bad for genius, while republics nurture it. Condorcet also remarks that free institutions are the native environment of scientific discovery Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA, 129). In turn, the growth of scientific knowledge will advance political freedom (Turgot 1750, 43). Turgot and Condorcet also hold that short-term decline can be part of Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA pattern of long-term improvement.

For instance, the false scientific philosophy of faculties and essences is born of reflection on phenomena. The second observation is related to the first, since Turgot thinks that the agents of creative destruction are usually narrowly self-interested or emotion-driven. Despite their many common convictions, Condorcet and Turgot Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA ways on the question of Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA. Condorcet states that as scientific knowledge spreads, an enlightened population will throw off the shackles of Tysabri (Natalizumab)- Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA its priests and demand greater freedom.

The Scottish and French Enlightenment were roughly contemporaneous and grappled with the same social Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA. It is difficult to draw hard and fast contrasts between the two bodies of thought, and better to consider individual authors. Hume's essays on political questions reflect his general philosophical orientation.

Although he is less likely than Condorcet and Turgot to make sweeping comments about progress, he explores the topic of social development in various interesting ways. He begins with the presumption that scientific and artistic progress requires a background of Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA security.

From this claim, he argues finding the arts and sciences cannot arise in a society without the rule of law. Hume also asserts that no monarchy can develop the rule of law on its own, while republics must develop the rule of law if they are Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA survive at all.

Civilized Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA are those that have learned the rule of law from neighboring republics. Hume even says that the arts progress more quickly in civilized monarchies than in republics, because they are useful for flattering monarchs. On the other hand, according to Hume, the general population is more impressed by scientific Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA with obvious technological applications than by artistic creations.

Hume thinks that countries can affect each other's progress. On the other hand, countries can intimidate each other into inactivity (76). Hume also asserts that the arts and sciences cannot progress indefinitely in a single country.

His first work, The Theory of the Moral Sentiments, addressed the philosophy of moral judgment and action. It is therefore not surprising that the Wealth Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone)- FDA Nations, the work on economic growth for which he is best known, has a deeper philosophical resonance.

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Comments:

20.08.2020 in 02:24 darmuddsembrea70:
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24.08.2020 in 20:23 soundseasnakon:
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