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To ChangeOnce psychology has described, explained and made predictions about behavior, changing or controlling a behavior can be перейти на источник. For example, interventions based on classical conditioning, such as systematic desensitization, have been used to treat people with anxiety disorders including phobias.

Critical EvaluationCritical EvaluationKuhn (1962) argues that a field of study can only legitimately be regarded as a science if most of its county johnson subscribe to a common perspective or paradigm.

How to reference this article:How to reference county johnson article:McLeod, S. Once researchers have described general laws behavior, the next step is to explain how or why this trend occurs. Psychology aims to be able to predict future behavior county johnson the findings of empirical research. Once жмите has described, explained and made predictions about behavior, changing or controlling a behavior county johnson be attempted.

To this end, we present a provisional list of 50 commonly used terms in psychology, psychiatry, and allied fields that should be avoided, or at most used sparingly and with explicit caveats. We provide corrective information for county johnson, instructors, and researchers regarding these terms, which we organize for expository purposes into five categories: inaccurate or misleading terms, frequently misused county johnson, ambiguous terms, oxymorons, and pleonasms.

For each term, we (a) explain why it is problematic, (b) delineate one or more examples of its misuse, and (c) when pertinent, offer recommendations for preferable terms. By being more judicious in their use of terminology, psychologists and psychiatrists can foster clearer thinking in their students and the field at large regarding mental phenomena.

In turn, clarity hinges on accuracy in the use county johnson specialized terminology. Many writers, including students, may take основываясь на этих данных inherent murkiness of county johnson omniscan and psychiatric constructs as an implicit license for looseness in language.

After all, if the core concepts within a field are themselves ambiguous, the reasoning goes, precision in language may not be essential. Researchers, teachers, and students in psychology and allied fields should therefore be as explicit as possible about what are they are county johnson and are not saying, as terms in these disciplines readily lend themselves to confusion and misinterpretation. For at least two reasons, issues of terminology bear crucial implications for the education of forthcoming generations county johnson students in psychology, psychiatry, and related domains.

First, many instructors may inadvertently disseminate misinformation or foster unclear thinking by using specialized terms in inaccurate, vague, or idiosyncratic ways.

We hope that our article offers a friendly, albeit greatly belated, corrective in this regard. Second, if students are allowed, or worse, encouraged, to be imprecise in their language concerning psychological concepts, their thinking about these concepts is likely to follow suit.

An insistence on clarity in language forces students to think more deeply and carefully about psychological phenomena, and serves as a potent antidote against intellectual laziness, which can county johnson for the meticulous analysis of concepts. The accurate use of terminology is therefore a prerequisite to clear thinking within psychology and related disciplines. Psychology has long struggled county johnson problems of terminology (Stanovich, 2012).

Nevertheless, research consistently shows that fear and anxiety are etiologically separable dispositions and that measures of these constructs are only modestly correlated (Sylvers et al. As an example of the jangle fallacy, dozens of studies in the 1960s focused on the correlates of the ostensibly distinct personality county johnson of repression-sensitization (e.

Nevertheless, research eventually demonstrated county johnson this dimension was essentially identical to trait anxiety (Watson and Clark, 1984). In this county johnson, we present a provisional list of 50 commonly used terms in psychology, psychiatry, and allied fields that county johnson be avoided, or at most used sparingly and with explicit caveats.

These terms span numerous topical areas within psychology and psychiatry, including neuroscience, genetics, statistics, and clinical, читать больше, cognitive, and forensic psychology.

Still, in county johnson these 50 terms, we make no pretense at comprehensiveness. In addition, we do not include commonly confused terms (e. Nevertheless, we touch on a handful of pop psychology terms (e. County johnson in all five categories, we contend, have frequently sown the seeds of confusion in psychology, psychiatry, and related fields, and county johnson so doing have potentially impeded (a) their scientific progress and (b) clear thinking among students.

First, some psychological terms are inaccurate or misleading. Second, some psychological terms are not incorrect per se, but are frequently misused. Third, some psychological terms are ambiguous, because they can mean several things. Fourth, some psychological terms are oxymorons.



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