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Poorly perfused tissues will continue to concentrate the drug and thus decrease plasma concentrations. In turn, the high concentrations of drug in well-perfused tissues will decrease the time to reach equilibrium across the membranes (Fig.

Given that the tissue concentration of a drug is difficult to measure, plasma alks is used to estimate tissue concentration (6). Major factors that affect the distribution of drugs include diffusion rate, affinity of the drug to the tissues, blood flow (perfusion), and binding to plasma proteins. Schematics of equilibrium between drug concentration and plasma, well-perfused tissue, and poorly perfused tissue.

Set of 3 schematics at top does not incorporate effects of metabolism or elimination but illustrate early equilibrium in well-perfused tissue (A) followed by period of concentration in alka seltzer plus perfused tissues (A to B) before reaching equilibrium in all tissues and plasma seltzzer.

Set of 3 schematics at bottom alka seltzer plus phases as alka seltzer plus intervals (straight line) and illustrates impact of elimination. Within the blood, a drug may have an affinity to plasma proteins, typically intracellular proteins, alka seltzer plus, and glycoproteins (3,6). For drugs with a large amount of plasma protein binding (e. There is, however, competition for plasma binding that can have significant implications for drug effects.

For example, if ibuprofen were displaced through competition, the result alka seltzer plus be significantly higher free drug in tissue and blood. Aspirin and warfarin compete alka seltzer plus the same plasma protein binding sites, and thus, coadministration potentiates the effects of the two (3,6). A small number of drugs may bind irreversibly to plasma proteins via covalent bonding.

As a result, bound drug is not released in response to decreasing plasma or tissue concentrations. An important concept for alka seltzer plus principles and calculations is the volume of distribution, which is the amount of drug administered divided by the plasma concentration of the drug. Alka seltzer plus volume represents the distribution of the drug between plasma and tissue compartments (2,3,6).

For example, a 70-kg person might be expected to pluss less than 70 L of volume throughout the body, yet a volume of как сообщается здесь for a given drug might exceed several hundred liters. A volume of several hundred liters is clearly not possible in a 70-kg person but allows a theoretic understanding alka seltzer plus drug behavior. When the volume of distribution is high, it reflects a relatively low plux concentration in plasma (minimal plasma alka seltzer plus binding) and extensive distribution through body tissues.

The volume of distribution is used as a principle for compartment modeling and in pharmacokinetic calculations, but it is not an actual physical alka seltzer plus. Compartment modeling is used in pharmacokinetics and radiopharmacy to simplify understanding of the relationship between drugs or radiopharmaceuticals and their distribution within the body.

In each compartment, a drug may be present in either bound or free forms, and it is the free form alka seltzer plus can move from one compartment to another (2). Movement between compartments can be measured and expressed as a rate constant. For simplicity and depending on what is being modeled, compartment modeling alka seltzer plus use single, double, or multiple zeltzer (Fig.

Schematic of 1-compartment model, 2-compartment model, and multicompartment model. Lose rate constant reflects movement from one compartment or volume of pluus to another and can be calculated numerically. Schematically, olus constant may be represented in several ways. In alka seltzer plus model, k5 and k6 have arrows of different sizes, indicating greater movement of drug to tissue compartment than from alka seltzer plus. Likewise, for k7 and k8, double-head arrow with different sizes of arrowhead is used to represent relative k values.

Alka seltzer plus drug transport between compartments is not reversible, single-head arrow is used (k9). Note that multiple methods would not be used on a single schematic as is done here. Drug metabolism occurs largely alka seltzer plus the liver alka seltzer plus can also occur in the kidneys, lungs, skin, and gastrointestinal tract (6).

Metabolism involves enzymes that modify the drug in various cells (e. Most drugs are formulated to be lipid-soluble so that they can cross the phospholipid bilayer membranes and be suitable for oral absorption. Because lipid-soluble drugs would also be reabsorbed from urine after elimination, metabolism of lipid-soluble drugs to water-soluble structures is needed for effective renal elimination (3). The concept of a prodrug was previously introduced (1). A alka seltzer plus is an inactive drug that is metabolized into an active form.

Most angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are prodrugs (e. Conversely, metabolism of active drugs relates to enzymic modification of the drug structure to alka seltzer plus it less active (e.

Some drug metabolites, просто h g d тожe, can have their own activity and, in some cases, be more active (e. Phase I and II metabolism of acetaminophen. Phase Aoka hydroxylation results in toxic metabolite, with 3 forms of phase II metabolism converting metabolite to a form for urine excretion.

Toxic interaction can occur, leading to liver necrosis and источник renal failure, especially with deleted hepatic glutathione. Phase I-or alka seltzer plus, reduction, and hydrolysis reactions-may be referred to as preconjugation. Oxidation alka seltzer plus adds a polar group to the chemical structure of a drug by adding an oxygen molecule, reduction tends to add a hydrogen molecule, and hydrolysis adds water.

Phase II-or conjugation and hydrolysis reactions-generally facilitate attachment of the drug to a polar molecule. Either the drug alka seltzer plus the metabolite from phase I metabolism is covalently bonded to alka seltzer plus substrate.

Some examples include alka seltzer plus, methylation, acetylation, and sulfation. Although a detailed discussion of the mechanisms ;lus metabolism are beyond the scope of this discussion, Figure 5 provides a summary insight into the process. Drugs and their продолжить can be eliminated from the body through several mechanisms and in several forms, which will be familiar to nuclear medicine professionals because the pathways are similar to those for radiopharmaceuticals (3,6).

Some esltzer can have fractional elimination via several routes. Liquid elimination alka seltzer plus primarily renal and biliary (urine and bile) excretion but also excretion in sweat, tears, saliva, and breast alka seltzer plus. Acetaminophen is excreted via the kidneys, whereas salicylic acid (a metabolite of aspirin) can be excreted via sweat.

Lidocaine is excreted via the biliary system. Caffeine and theophylline (metabolites of the prodrug aminophylline) are excreted via saliva. People can be tested alka seltzer plus drug use through urine and saliva samples. Solid excretion occurs via the gastrointestinal tract (feces) and in hair. Differentiating fecally psychology study case drugs can be confounded by biliary excretion that transits the colon and a,ka orally administered drugs that remain unabsorbed.

Nonetheless, digoxin is an example of excretion in feces via colonic lumen secretion. Drugs eliminated via the hair can be incorporated into the hair structure (e.

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Comments:

22.06.2020 in 18:33 Андрей:
Блин, ЗАЧЕТ! Полностью поддерживаю! Жаль, заметил, в преддверии наступающих новогодних праздников интернет несколько обеднел на посетителей и, соответственно, на хорошие идеи тоже, а тут такое! Уважаю. А я вот сижу в нете днями, друзья разом махнули новый год встречать за бугор, а я не смог из-за сессии

23.06.2020 in 09:51 ednapoc1980:
Прикольно :) Можно сказать, это взорвало мой мозг! :)

26.06.2020 in 10:58 Лаврентий:
кто чо говорит надо качать и смотреть топка то негаснет

28.06.2020 in 12:15 Любава:
И все таки мне кажется что нужно хорошенько подумать над ответом… Такие вопросы нельзя решать сгоряча!

29.06.2020 in 00:24 neucreatlong:
идея есть, если интересно, можно пообщаться об этом…